Ebola virus disease (EVD)
- Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as
Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans.
- The virus is transmitted to people from wild
animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human
- The average EVD case fatality rate is around
50%. Case fatality rates have varied from 25% to 90% in past outbreaks.
- The first EVD outbreaks occurred in remote
villages in Central Africa, near tropical rainforests, but the most recent
outbreak in west Africa has involved major urban as well as rural areas.
- Community engagement is key to successfully
controlling outbreaks. Good outbreak control relies on applying a package of
interventions, namely case management, surveillance and contact tracing, a good
laboratory service, safe burials and social mobilization.
- Early supportive care with rehydration,
symptomatic treatment improves survival. There is as yet no licensed treatment
proven to neutralize the virus but a range of blood, immunological and drug
therapies are under development.
- There are currently no licensed Ebola vaccines
but 2 potential candidates are undergoing evaluation